Топик "Кремль" (Moscow Kremlin)
The Kremlin is the heart of Moscow. It is the oldest historical and architectual centre of Moscow.
First it was a wooden fort. Under Dmitry Donskoy the Kremlin was built of white stone. In 1474 Ivan III sent a mission to Italy to find the best architectural and engineering talent available. They brought back with them Rodolfo Aristotel Fiorovanti of Bologna who was at once an architect, an engineer, an expert in military fortifications.
The Italians introduced a new concept of the fortress wall, quite different in character from that of the old Russian whitestone Kremlins. The walls of Moscow Kremlin were built of red stone.
The Kremlin consists of 20 towers. Four of them are gate towers, the most remarkable of them is the Spasskaja Tower.
The Assumption Cathedral in Kremlin was built in 1475-1479. The Russian Tzars and Emperors were crowned here. The Archangel Cathedral was the burial place of the Russian Tzars. The Annuciation Сathedral was erected in 1484. It is famous for the icons painted by Andrey Rublev and his apprentices.
Ivan the Great Bell Tower, one of the most remarkable structures of the sixteenth century, rises in the centre of the Kremlin. It unites all the Kremlin Cathedrals into a majestic ensemble.
On the stone pedestal at the foot of the Bell Tower stands a Tzar-Bell - the largest bell in the world. Not far from it one can see a Tzar-Cannon.
Another fine example of Russian architecture is the Faceted Palace. It was built in 1487-1491.
One of the well-known Kremlin museums is the Armoury Chamber. It was built in 1851. The famous golden cap of Monomach, the first russian imperial crown of Catherin II, made of guilt silver and many other precious historical items are exhibited there.
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